Lymphoproliferative Disease (X-Linked)

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a disorder of the immune system and blood-forming cells that is found almost exclusively in males. More than half of individuals with this disorder experience an exaggerated immune response to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a very common virus that eventually infects most humans. In some people it causes infectious mononucleosis (commonly known as “mono”). Normally, after initial infection, EBV remains in certain immune system cells (lymphocytes) called B cells. However, the virus is generally inactive (latent) because it is controlled by other lymphocytes called T cells that specifically target EBV-infected B cells.

People with XLP may respond to EBV infection by producing abnormally large numbers of T cells, B cells, and other lymphocytes called macrophages. This proliferation of immune cells often causes a life-threatening reaction called hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis causes fever, destroys blood-producing cells in the bone marrow, and damages the liver. The spleen, heart, kidneys, and other organs and tissues may also be affected. In some individuals with XLP, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or related symptoms may occur without EBV infection.

Reference: Medline Plus